Macro and MicroCell Sites
Traditional macrocell sites are the foundation of the wireless system infrastructure, also known as the wireless grid or ecosystem. Macrocell sites consist of elevated wireless antennas connected to associated equipment through cables placed vertically, known as the waveguide. Depending on the wireless carrier and the equipment manufacturer, the associated equipment may be in an on-site equipment shelter as large as twelve feet by thirty feet or in outdoor cabinets or on a 5 × 10 foot (or less) platform footprint on the ground surrounded by a security fence. Electricity is needed to power the facility, and telecommunication service connection(s) provides backhaul from the cell site to the public switched telephone network (PSTN) and the internet. While 3G wireless service could utilize twisted pairs of copper cables, 4G LTE service requires fiber-optic backhaul. Rooftop sites vary slightly.